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中走丝断丝原因

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中走丝断丝原因

发布日期:2016-04-21 00:00 来源:http://tg86.cn 点击:

1,钼丝(si)钼丝(si)的松紧程(cheng)度(du)

如(ru)果钼(mu)丝(si)(si)安(an)装太松,则钼(mu)丝(si)(si)抖动厉害 ,不仅会造(zao)成断丝(si)(si),而(er)且由于钼(mu)丝(si)(si)的(de)(de)抖动直接(jie)影响工件表(biao)面粗糙度。但钼(mu)丝(si)(si)也(ye)不能安(an)装 得太紧,太紧内(nei)应力增大(da),也(ye)会造(zao)成断丝(si)(si),因(yin)此钼(mu)丝(si)(si)在(zai)切割(ge)过程中,其松紧程度要(yao)(yao)适当(dang) ,新安(an)装的(de)(de)钼(mu)丝(si)(si),要(yao)(yao)先紧丝(si)(si)再加(jia)工,紧丝(si)(si)时(shi)用力不要(yao)(yao)太大(da)。钼(mu)丝(si)(si)在(zai)加(jia)工一段时(shi)间后,由 于自身的(de)(de)拉(la)伸而(er)变(bian)松。当(dang)伸长量(liang)较大(da)时(shi),会加(jia)剧(ju)钼(mu)丝(si)(si)振动或出现钼(mu)丝(si)(si)在(zai)贮(zhu)丝(si)(si)筒上重(zhong)叠。 使(shi)走丝(si)(si)不稳而(er)引起(qi)断丝(si)(si)。应经常检查钼(mu)丝(si)(si)的(de)(de)松紧程度,如(ru)果存在(zai)松弛(chi)现象,要(yao)(yao)及(ji)时(shi)拉(la)紧 。

钼(mu)丝(si)安(an)装。钼(mu)丝(si)要按规定的走向绕在贮丝(si)筒上,同时(shi)固定两端(duan)。绕丝(si)时(shi),一(yi)般贮丝(si) 筒两端(duan)各留10mm,中(zhong)间(jian)绕满(man)不重叠,宽度不少于贮丝(si)筒长度的一(yi)半,以免电机换(huan)向频(pin)繁(fan) 而使机件(jian)加速损坏,也防止钼(mu)丝(si)频(pin)繁(fan)参与切(qie)割而断丝(si)。

机床上(shang)钼(mu)丝(si)引出(chu)(chu)处有(you)挡丝(si)棒(bang),挡丝(si)棒(bang)是由两根(gen)红宝(bao)石制成(cheng)的导(dao)向(xiang)立柱,挡丝(si)棒(bang)不像 导(dao)轮那样作(zuo)滚动(dong)运动(dong),他们(men)直接与钼(mu)丝(si)接触,作(zuo)滑动(dong)摩擦。因(yin)此磨损很快(kuai),使用不久柱 体(ti)与钼(mu)丝(si)接触的地方就会形成(cheng)深沟,必(bi)须(xu)及时检查并进(jin)行翻转和更换,否(fou)则(ze)会出(chu)(chu)现叠(die)丝(si) 断丝(si)。

2,运丝(si)机构

中走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)线切割(ge)机(ji)的运(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构主(zhu)要(yao)是(shi)(shi)由(you)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、线架和导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)(lun)组成(cheng)。当运(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构的精(jing)度(du)下降时(shi) (主(zhu)要(yao)是(shi)(shi)传动(dong)(dong)(dong)轴(zhou)(zhou)承),会(hui)引起贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的径(jing)(jing)向(xiang)跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和轴(zhou)(zhou)向(xiang)窜动(dong)(dong)(dong)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的径(jing)(jing)向(xiang)跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)会(hui)使(shi)(shi)(shi)电 极丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的张力减小,造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)松,严重(zhong)时(shi)会(hui)使(shi)(shi)(shi)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)从导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)(lun)槽中脱出拉(la)断(duan)(duan)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的轴(zhou)(zhou)向(xiang)窜动(dong)(dong)(dong) 会(hui)使(shi)(shi)(shi)排丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)不匀(yun),产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)叠丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)现(xian)象(xiang)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的轴(zhou)(zhou)和轴(zhou)(zhou)承等(deng)(deng)零件常(chang)因磨(mo)损(sun)而产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)间隙,也容易(yi) 引起丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong)而断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因此(ci)必须及时(shi)更换磨(mo)损(sun)的轴(zhou)(zhou)和轴(zhou)(zhou)承等(deng)(deng)零件。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)换向(xiang)时(shi),如没有 切断(duan)(duan)高频电源,会(hui)导(dao)(dao)致(zhi)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)在短时(shi)间内温(wen)度(du)过高而烧(shao)断(duan)(duan)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因此(ci)必须检(jian)查(cha)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou)端 的行(xing)程(cheng)开关是(shi)(shi)否(fou)(fou)失灵(ling)。要(yao)保持贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)(lun)转动(dong)(dong)(dong)灵(ling)活(huo),否(fou)(fou)则在往返运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)时(shi)会(hui)引起运(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)系(xi) 统振动(dong)(dong)(dong)而断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。绕丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)后(hou)空载走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)检(jian)验钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)是(shi)(shi)否(fou)(fou)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong),若发生(sheng)(sheng)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong)要(yao)分析原因。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou) 端的限(xian)位(wei)挡(dang)块必须调(diao)整(zheng)好,避免贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)冲出限(xian)位(wei)行(xing)程(cheng)而断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。挡(dang)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)装(zhuang)置(zhi)中挡(dang)块与快速运(yun) 动(dong)(dong)(dong)的钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)接触(chu)、摩(mo)擦(ca),易(yi)产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)沟槽并造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)夹丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉(la)断(duan)(duan),因此(ci)也需(xu)及时(shi)更换。导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)(lun)轴(zhou)(zhou)承的磨(mo) 损(sun)将直接影响导(dao)(dao)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)精(jing)度(du),此(ci)外,当导(dao)(dao)轮(lun)(lun)的v型(xing)槽、宝石限(xian)位(wei)块、导(dao)(dao)电块磨(mo)损(sun)后(hou)产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的沟槽 ,也会(hui)使(shi)(shi)(shi)电极丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的摩(mo)擦(ca)力过大,易(yi)将钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉(la)断(duan)(duan)。这种现(xian)象(xiang)一般(ban)发生(sheng)(sheng)在机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用时(shi)间较(jiao)长(zhang) 、加工(gong)工(gong)件较(jiao)厚(hou)、运(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构不易(yi)清理的情况下。因此(ci)在机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用中应(ying)定期检(jian)查(cha)运(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)构 的精(jing)度(du),及时(shi)更换易(yi)磨(mo)损(sun)件。

3,工(gong)件

工(gong)件(jian)材(cai)料:对(dui)不经锻打(da)、不淬火材(cai)料,在线切(qie)割(ge)加工(gong)前最好(hao)采用低(di)温回(hui)火消除(chu)内(nei)应(ying) 力,因为如果工(gong)件(jian)的(de)内(nei)应(ying)力没有(you)得到消除(chu),在切(qie)割(ge)时(shi),有(you)的(de)工(gong)件(jian)会开裂,把(ba)钼丝碰断(duan); 有(you)的(de)会使间隙(xi)变形,把(ba)钼丝夹断(duan)或弹断(duan)。如淬火后t8钢在线切(qie)割(ge)加工(gong)中及(ji)易引起断(duan)丝尽(jin) 量(liang)少用。切(qie)割(ge)厚铝材(cai)料时(shi),由(you)于排屑困难,导电块磨损较(jiao)大,注意(yi)及(ji)时(shi)更换。

工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)装夹:虽然线切割加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)受力极小,但仍需(xu)牢固夹紧工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),防止(zhi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong) 过程(cheng)中因工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)位置变(bian)动造(zao)成断丝。同时要(yao)(yao)避免由于工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自重(zhong)(zhong)和(he)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)材料的(de)(de)(de)(de)弹性(xing)变(bian)形造(zao) 成的(de)(de)(de)(de)断丝。在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)厚重(zhong)(zhong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)时,可在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)快要(yao)(yao)结束时,用(yong)磁(ci)铁吸(xi)住将要(yao)(yao)下(xia)落的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),或 者人工(gong)(gong)保护下(xia)落的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),使(shi)其平行缓慢下(xia)落从而防止(zhi)断丝。 4电(dian)(dian)参(can)数(shu)电(dian)(dian)参(can)数(shu)选(xuan)择(ze)不(bu)当也 是引起断丝的(de)(de)(de)(de)一个重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)原因,所以(yi)要(yao)(yao)根据工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)厚度(du)选(xuan)择(ze)合理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)参(can)数(shu),将脉(mai)冲(chong)间隔拉开(kai) 一些,有利于熔化(hua)金属微(wei)粒的(de)(de)(de)(de)排出,同时峰值电(dian)(dian)流和(he)空(kong)载(zai)电(dian)(dian)压不(bu)宜过高,否则使(shi)单个脉(mai) 冲(chong)能量变(bian)大,切割速度(du)加(jia)(jia)快,容易(yi)产生集中放电(dian)(dian)和(he)拉弧,引起断丝。一般空(kong)载(zai)电(dian)(dian)压为 100v左右。在电(dian)(dian)火花(hua)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中,电(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian)是造(zao)成负极腐(fu)蚀损坏(huai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)(yao)因素(su),再(zai)加(jia)(jia)上间隙不(bu) 合适(shi),容易(yi)使(shi)某(mou)(mou)一脉(mai)冲(chong)形成电(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian),只要(yao)(yao)电(dian)(dian)弧放电(dian)(dian)集中于某(mou)(mou)一段,就(jiu)会引起断丝。

根据工件(jian)厚度选择合适的放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙:放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙不能太小,否则容易产生短(duan)路,也不 利于冷却和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)蚀物的排(pai)出;放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙过大,将影响表面(mian)粗糙度及加工速度。当切割(ge)厚度 较大的工件(jian)时,应尽量选用大脉宽电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流,同时放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙也要(yao)大一点,长而增强(qiang)排(pai)屑效果(guo) ,提高(gao)切割(ge)的稳定性。


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